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Full text of "A new preceptor for the German flute"

/ 



S. 



FLUTE PRECEPTOR. 



, fince the earliest Ages has been considered not only a Divine Institution, 
hut, a Principal part of a liberal Education, and claims the attention of all those who 
have it in tlieir power to acquire a Knowledge thereof; _ The Flute, from its deUcacy 
and fwc-ejtxiess of Tone, merits an equal fhare of admiration with other Instruments, 
and is capable of great Musical Expression . 

Of holding the Flute. 
The' firft thing to be learned is holding the Flute in a proper manner, the learner is 
to take the Flute in the left hand, in such a manner that the thumb may be placed 
a little below the first finger when applied to the first, hole, the second joint bent or 
arched, the fecond finger a litt^p more fo, the third in an oblique direction without 
any arch or bend, taking carethat the little finger does not rest on the Flute. The thumb 
of the right hand must be placed under the fourth hole; taking care the little fing. 
er on no a count touch the Flute, but fhould fupport itself over the D sharp key.keep- 
in^ the- ends of the Flute nearly parrallel to each other; Observing always to ftand 
or fit with the body and head upright 

Of the Embouchure or blowing the Flute- 

The Flute is to be plated between the under lip and chin* that the plug or EmLo. 
hur#» mi v touch tlie middle of the undei; l-V* DU tnotto cov-r any considerable 



p.vrt of the hole; the pint* must then be pressedftrr m *£: i"«.»*X he u Si "e i 1 i p i i 
order to foim a proper aperture*, on the managemc >j v 1 ht T ry fring c! e - - 

spends*, in the first place draw the lips ba i- ' n the sa me marinei J * 

is done in fmiling, which tension will form a sma i i a pcrture or operiirgin the ce n - 

^tre of the lips* through which the breath must passwer peridicu arly : dow»,fron I c 
mouth to the chin, after once making the Riite sout t' MfcintLntiai «. — rviildeq«3 
on the firmnss of the lips, being kept in their prppei pla t>naket : Kc f i *S uiia3 wit trie 
top joint only, after bringing out a clear an r\ smooth t< ~y .t the res 

the Instrument* then put the first fhigei if the let: hand on its proper hole. the i arid 
the second, and by degrees the others; im pupil will obyve he will probably firil ml 
tone for some time, as some of ii»e lingers may not ex - tl y cover tj'eir holes; as he proceed 
to the lower tones of the Flute, he must dr^-v liis lips back more and core, which u 1 
greatly facilitate tlie entrance of the breath, it is alfo recor^ended to bloM each v.oU until] 
he can bring out the tone with ease, and be able to continue it for fome time, clearand 
smooth, keeping the holes of the Flute on a line with each otheT, turning the foot or 
lower 30] it inward- that the little finger may reach the Key with ease. 

The fallowing Scale should be perfectly well pract^ sed.upu a rds an-* downwards as ffc 
as double D,in Alt, so as to be able to know and tell their proper Names in any Tune 
or lesson. The higher Notes maybe Itudied at leisure. Hie seven Figtir.es re,- 
present the7lower heles of the Flu te, the figures 1 2 3 represent the first se»-nd 



. ... ci iiurd ringers of the left Hand; &$ 6 & 7 th e fi rst, Second, third & fourth Fingers** 
iie Right Hand, where the Figures are placed under a Note the Fingers they represent 
ire to be upon the Roles, and where the O a • pears they are to be off I the Figure 7 is for 
'he Key to oe ihut, the O open . lie carelu_ h - lingers Itop the f?Ol«$ perfectly close,&ateo 
• lc .LeaMier ou tli e ivey, otherwise all your En4eavo lis toprot ^ c? an^ d ?gre° of Tone,will prove a>or 

Gamut in D Major. 




The Lt-atner being master <>f the Scale as far as double D > he must very careft.il> 
practise t Ji e Octaves , in tli e folloM iug S cal»» tak-ing care the Octaves are perfectly. 

.♦■ell in tune, with each other: In o rderVadluire a smooth and -equal lone,. he mtt^t 

>»bscr\ . t,ie lower Notes are brought out IU11 . the Uppef ones clear firnt not harsh 



6 

,y an increased Compression of the Lips, and by giving to the upper Notesof each 
CVtave double the Velocity to the Air,I would reoromjnd each Note to beVsounded 
>ery soft(or Piano) at the Beginningf and by encreaing the Tone to Forte^Loud in 
the Middle, then by diminishing it gradually to the endf as at the Mark over the iirst. 
DVthis being one of the greatest beauties on the Flute* after playing well in Tune. 
Keep the Li p s,and Tone. «lso the Flute t very tteady* holding each Note as long as he 
conveniently can , in the lame breath. 

Octaves ascending fc amending. 

±1* s A 1 




The above Scale b^ing well srudied'go to page 3 paying particular attention to the 

Character and length of the Notes; which must be got by Heart , after m h i< !< 

go to page 19 M . 

The following is a Complete Scale-of all the Natural Notes>and Semitones on the 
fii-ite** *h the different ways of Fingerikg. The Natural Notes are distinguished hy 
the Sem .breve thus Of the Semitones* (or Flats and, Sharps^ by the Crotchet* thus for'rta|' 



may be refered to for any Sotc Flat, Sharp, or Natural. N5 the first way of Fingering maj 
r used in j'ftieral»L:it in such V usages as you find it anyways difficult, use the fecond or third aj 

A ( omplete S< de of flats vSharps & Naturals. 





Character and ogth *f tfie Notes in Modern Music and the propotion they bear 
in relation to each other. .Read the following Scale thus; one Semibreve is as long as two 
Miliums 01 four Crotchets &c &c; one Mipxm as long as two Crotchets, or four Quavers & c &': 
one Crotchet as lorg as tvo pavers or lour Semiquavers &.c,&c; and soon with the otherNote^. 



I UT 



ixteeu 



Thirty Two^S 





^ v -<? mi breve is equal to 



A 1 Bar Pest 



3 — Minims or 



2 Bar ResF 



4 Bar Rest 



66 



& r AiS Q " 3 v e* s or 

^ . . NV « 

i r ^ 

zz Ti_\> r ni iquave rs o 



a '8 Bar Res€ 




a ll O Bar Re*f 

1 ■ v 

i 

em i S e ni l qi i ave i s . 



The marks following the Note's are called Rests when you meet with any one of 
f ln*m you must irinain silent during' the time o I" the Note they represent and ale called 
a Serrnhreve Rest a Minim Rest &c The other Rests frequently occur in :T Tusic of two 
«r more parts and are r.,jled a one Bar R.est a Tvo Bar Rest &c . 

A r it or Dot followViigS !/,)^ oVr£st?fiakeVVu*h Note or Rest half a* long again j 
t ^js.a Dotted Seimhreve is as long as three Minim** a Dotted Mjirrfm as Jong as three 
* C rotches fee'. *ee Kramp of Dots. 



9 

Example of Dots. 




1 w ■ — j - j — m _ — _ L - m • 

H-^-H — 1 i £fr - 



: 



j 



. j 



Of Flats Sharps and Natural* 
Flats, Double Flats, Sharps , Double ShaTps, Naturals , 



f 



Flats Sharps and Naturals are indispensable Characters in Music; a Flat being placed 
before any Note makes it half a Note lower- a Sharp before a Not* makes it half a JiigheT. 
a double Flat two half Notes lower a double Sharp two half Notes higher a Natural placed 
before a Note made Flat or Sharp brings it to its- natural State. Flats or Sharps placed 
at the beginning of any piece of Music affect all the Noteson the Lines or Spaces on 
which they are placed and all their Octaves above and below through the whole pie e 
except contradict ed by a Natural. All Flats Sharps and Naturals that occur in any piece 
of Music but those at the beginning are called Accident I Flats Sharps &c and affect only 
the Note before which they are placed and those on the same line or fpace m that Bar 

I el * contradicted by aJN'aturaH if the last Note in the Bar is affected b^ the Accidental 
and the first Note of the following is the same- and not contradicted- the affect continues 
tbtouCff /the next Bar', And so in, respect to accidental Ffats & Sharps. 



10 

EJCAMI'LE of SHARKS. 
The Shake is (one if not) the most Prmci^l Grace m Music if m ell performed but shu/I 
not he so frequently and Inv di"ciou*ly used as is often the Case, ajudicious Ear m, 11. 
'greatly corect the abuse of if, observe the Shake^made by liist Playing the Note or half 
Not? ahove,the Note Shook; NB; the Sh-ake and all other Graces mist be Played in Time 
The Beat is made by first Paying the Note or half Note below; A Plain Shak#» is onl 
the articulate Pound of t • o Notes,., put into equal motion. 



Written 



la J 11 J *j* n-1— itxz 



6* 



»1; 



^/U Plain Shake.luni d Shake. S hake- ci: Grace. A lieaf. 1 using 

V'-V 



^1 




The F guieii under hn 
1 " 



A I E a f* S H A K I . 

be t 

ugers tu^shakeuj feieing to the above .Sale, how performed 



IT 



fa 



a I J < 



-9. The ( J is Shook by first making D,tli en Shake the uger of tiie right 

i • mi/ X( #is Shook by lust making D^then Shake tn e 3i Cl A mgers of the 7 eft ±,anc\ 



11 

• 

EXPLANATON of Various CHARACTERS & MARKS . 
TheGor Tr^le Cliff thus|U is used for VIOLIN, FLUTE, CLARINET, &c A Repeat 
thus or thus signifies \; the parts before or between either of the foregoing Marks 

must be played wr^e, A Slur thus^^drawn over or under two or more Notes fignfies the 
first Note only must be played with a Stroke of the Tongue, or the Bow^^ie rest closely con^ 
^neted togther. A Figure 3 placed over three Notes of the^fame kind thus PJJ must de played in . 
the Time of IVo; A Figure 6 plaeed over Six Notes thus fmTf must be playedin the Time of Four; 
A Pause thus |* i%.to hold the Note longer triji it is played in the other parts of the Tune or 
Air, and is irequeiitly put over the last Note of a piece of Music to denote the finish. 
Thefe marks — sS are used as Abbreviations, and may beunderftood by the following Example: 
m Written 




Staccato 



a_ 4 j i ■ i 5 ■rrrnr r^g 



IS 



Played 



W ntten 



Played 

Staccato is a Point or Dot thus mm or....& fignifies the Notes over which ftand must be playe- 
with Spirit and Taste and held only half the Time, the remaining part is made up %y an 
.imaginary Rest betweeneach Note. 

Of the A PPO GIATURA. 
The Appogiatura. is a fmall Note reversed, and always Hands before the prinr ipal one 
it precede^,and is a prinripal Orace and may more frequently be used than any other, it 
is capable of great Expression if judiciously played, it is peculiarly ^gractfnl at the End 
.qf a Strain, by sustaining it as long as the time Mill admit; it is carefully attended to by 



13 



4t the beginning but from the third above the Key Note, being a Flat or Sharp Third. 
This mark ' % signifies a Sharp Third, this \>s d a Flat Third. 

i^XATvIPLE of a Fiat (k Sharp Third, with the half Notes contained in each. 

Key of C §3<*. Key of C t>3 a : Key of A \>3 d . Key of A #3<i v 
« t > o a. r ■ , ^ « * ' *i ^ J i • -i\ ores. 
Q 1 - 2 ii 4 1 — 1 2 3 ' 4 * 2 3 4 3 2 3 A 5 ^ - ^ 

ppggga^Pili n r ■ r ■' r H r 1 r V i i K\ U<k " 

NB. From K a to FK;. also from Bs| to Cij,is but half a Note. 



Table of TRANSPOSITION. 




12 

all good performers both Vocal & Instrumental, See the following Exam* how written & playe< 



Example of the APOGIATURE 




. EXAMPLE of TRANSPOSITION & Keys. 



Trans po4jtioa # is remov-ing* any Tune or Air into a higher or lower Key, within the 
• Co- pal o 1'2 Instrument; the following Table will Show how any lune or Lesson rray be 
Transposed into any Key. By a Key, is meant the fundamental Note of a Tune.which is afc^ys 
the list Not in the Bafs, and generally in the Air or principal Treble ; Observe there are 
but two Determined Keyslt.e Major or c harp Third, & Minor or Hat Third; See ExamE 
of 1 lat aiul Sharp-Thirds..* Key is not ( ^nominated Flat, or Sh arp ,by the Flat or Shrp/ 



EXPLANATION of the BAR 



The- Bar is a perpendicular Line acrofs the five Lines £ _JiAJ_ — ^ ^"DTo^J e -j j each Bar in. 
-elude more or lefs Notes as the Character .of the Time requires which is signified at the Be. 
.-ginning of every Piece of Music, Sec Example of Time, A double Bar is used to devide 
the Parfs of Airs Songs &c. - : 

X3F TIME 

Time is of the utmost consequence,and he that is not well acquainted with it can have no 
Claim to the Title of a Musician, and will never be able to play in C oncjrt. or with any one_ 
elce where their is more then one part; Time is devide d by Bars. and eaeh Bar . aga n 
devided into two, three, or more equal Parts, and is called either Common, or Triple Time &r. 

EXAMPLE of Common- TIME 
Common Time is devided into a equal Number of parts in each Bar, as Four Crotcfie! 
or four quavers;(and is knwii by the folloing Chara< tes> or there value in other N*- res - 



|o«r,;JJ r ri r i^ 





EXAM PI E of Triple TIME 




1 at ig an i Beating of time See Pa.ge 15 



, 1S ^_ r .,..,^ r 

Of COUNTING & BEATING of TIME. 

A Knowledge of Counting & Beating of Time is absolutely necessary to every one*li 
is de f Irons of pU>uig in CCNCEPT', & flsou2d be well rtudied,& Practised, as soon as tfie 
Rip'l r -»n play any little easy piece, or Air at Fight. In an kind of Time ti e Toot g >es down 
it the first Note in each Bar; in Common Time the Foot is half down & half up in the Bar; 
a I iiple Time the Foot must v e down two thirds of the Lar,and up the last third, fee the 
following Examp! es . lhe Letter D shows where the Foot must be down, the TJ^heretoh 



COMMON TIME. 



1234, 


12 34 


1 2 3 4 


l . 

ft 




4 


i 


2 


3 

r 


4 


1 

-m- 


2 3 


pf 


T*%1 


i 

rf 


2 


3 4 - 

» - II 


J . D U 


r u 


D U 


D 


ti 




D 


... 

i 


?+- 

u 




D 


u 




D V 


* 

E 


> u 



Vi hen <j li^k, court Two Crotchets in a Bar. when Slow, count 2*bur Quavers. 




1 2 34 1 2 34 1234 12 ft 4 

D D U D U i> U 



123 4 1234 1234 
h U D U D U 



Ml<v iiiit two n aBir.,, 



7T 



VMM 



^•123 123 123 123123 'l2 3 12 3 'l2 zTTs 



2 3 4 

L 



2 



1 2 3 12 3 12 3 12 3- S - ? 1 



2 3 



■When fluw , count c ix,or two times Three in a Bar. 



TRIPLE TIME. 



Count 3 Crotchets in a Bar. 



— 



123 1 2 3 123 123 123 1 2 3.123 123 

D i D U D V I) U D U D U D V D L 



Count 3 Qi 


lavers in 
■ •— 


i. Bar. 


- 










m 








J 12 3 
D U 


1 2 3 

D V 


1 2 3 

D U 


i 

D 


2 


3 

u 


1 2 

D 


3 

u 


1 2 

D 


3 

u 


1 2 3 

D V 


t 2 

D U 



Count 3 


in 


a I 


tar. 

S • 


rp-rri 


'ffl 




L fl r l 


i tc ff ft r 1 1 j 




N 




1 


2 3 




1 2 3 




1 it 3 



Exercife of SYNCOPATION, or DRIVING Notes. 





EXPLAINED. 



^^^^^^^ 



Of 



TO. 



1 N G 



T aigueiigcoustitutes a very essential part in playing the Flute, ii markl with .precision 
the befiining and othe> parts of Musical A cents. Articulation &c; the most approved wa) 
is by the Artion& reaction of the TongU? agaiiist the Pal ate, or Roof of the *fbuth,*s in 
I renouncing the Letter Tor J), fhe first is most sp'rited ti e latter r ore soft and delicate' 
nake the first Trial i t U trie top joint of i l.e Flute only, taking care the Tongue doth not 
I npede t!.e lone which must immediately follow clear & full, after which put the Flute all 
gether and do the same erv distinctly, taking care the Tongue and Fingers move together. 
!>e care-fill to avoid 'he d^sa reeable and common h 'bit of the Tongue passing between 
.'he Teeth and Lips,as if suiting s<> -lething out of the Mouth . 



in 



DOUBLE T ° ft GU EING, 
Is of the first importance ih playing the Flute.it gives a Brilliancy of Articulation 
lire Aflegr as well as iu the Largo, and renders quick passages easy where the common 
Ton^ueing is inadequate t > the F lp idity.The most approved method is by the Action anM 



react ion of the Tongue, in pronouncing the words Tootle Tootle, or Diddle iDiddl 
tiuct: make the first trial -with the top Joint &c as in the abo^ e Example. 

LESSONS for DOUBLE TONGUElNG 



' 17 , (la t ■! T " . At * ,1 ' , — ,1 i I ) ~ » 




lootle t ! je f , * Ie t<,! 'le rootle tootle f. 
Air i s J 



foofle toatootle too & 




J i » to! 



° ^ c — - - - - - . _ , .too too too too.:.- _ - - - 



-too t 




OF THE LES S AFP OGI ATU JRA . 

Tins Appogiahira is hie fly made .lie of in quick movements} and when it occurs, is a! * 
ways ilurrd immediately in to the ~&ole lollo'vingi it is also placed at the beginning ofaLes 
son or Free of Music* to take oil the lia rih and difagteeable effect it oth envife would 
iiave,M<-ie it not for the, aforelaid Note. 









E X A M 


PLE. 

















It 



Ple\el\, t.ernaa Hymn? Uith flie Hugering to each Note 

rn 



I 



3^ 



Left 1 1 

Hand 2 2 
3 o 



RiCht 4 

Hind ° 
o o 



e y OO 



1 I 

2 2 

3 3 



4 4 

5 O 

o o 



7 O 



1 1 

3 3 



O 4 

o o 



O 7 



O 



I » 

1 3 

2 2 

a o 



4 o 
o o 
o o 



o n 



1 1 

2 2 

3 3 



4 4 
£ O 
O O 



7 r. 



1 — »" 
1 1 

1 ] 

3 3 



4 
r> (, 



O 7 



r 

' i 

1 1 

2 2 

^ 3 



4 4 

5 O 
O O 



7 n 



E 



1 1 
o 1 

2 2 

3 3 



4 4 

5 S 
f o 
7 7. 



o 1 

n 

o o 



o o 
o n 



n O 



1 
1 

1 

2 

n 



-t- 



1 1 

2 2 

3 O 



4 O 
O O 
O n 



O O 



-4- 



1 ] 

2 2 

3 3 



4 4 

5 O 

n o 



7 O 



1 J 

2 2 

3 3 



O 4 

o 6 
o r> 



o 
2 

3 



4 
5 

6 



P 



Romance de JK.tliar 



$=1 



1 o 

2 2 



; » 

2 2 

3 3 



1 o 

2 2 

3 3 



o 

2 
O 



O 1 

2 2 

3 3 



1 1 

2 2 

3 3 



1 O 

2 2 

3 3 



O I 

2 2 

3 3 



1 O 

2 2 

3 



1 

2 

8 



O 

2 

3 



V 

O 

n 
o 



o ! 

2 2 

3 3 



O I 

2 2 

3 3 



O 
2 



o 

2 
n 







.4 

.5 « 

o 6 



n 



o 5 

6 O 



4 4 
5*5 
O 6 



7 7 



4 4 

5 5' 

6 O 



7 7 



4 4 

o o 

■f 6 

7 



4 4 

5 5 



4 4 
6 O 



4 V 

5 5 
O 



4 
5 



7 



7 7 



7 7 



O 
O 

o 



4 4 

5 O 
r 



u > 



O 



4 
5 

8 



O 



20 

AT.*'- lit u Ndjor I-v,, J, FLU I S 



Pi i mo ^5 




vO'iiit two Orotcheis in a Bar*; 



I 2 i 



Vllrgrcrto v 

S« c o a <io f*?f j ■jjJrt- -f l£Ly 



2 12 
1* 



1 



I 2 | 



25 — "Tl — \ ~ ~t~l — ^ — p T. — v ^ — — — fr 



12 I 2 I 2 J 

-/TV 



i 2 



SI 



! 



tJ 1 2 i 2 I 




yj 12 12 12 12 ! 2 J 2 1 12 '2 < 2 1 id I 2 



Air for Two i- ' ■ . t r s. 



Prime; 



4*^ 





3 1 



Cosing threr f*F«tcJ 




^4 B ar . 





h 2 



3 1 



1 23 



F c co n do 









» — 




§1 










f p B 


^ 11 1 1 • 




1 








2 3 




12 


3 1 i 


> 3 12 3 


1 2 3 


1 2 3 



Blue xieli of ScottaUfA. W Tlris Air may he Ila>e t an OctilVe faighe] 



Hipi 




i 1 

-44- 


1 

H-4— 1— 1 




I 1. 

hi r ] J lis 


^fe4t^ 

1 If i HI 1- 


7,i l'< 


1 

let us ( hen 
.0 


sh . 

4 { — * 


d a) * 


1 

H»» J 


1 

rp ri r r 




^* 








dLjr-".. 

-© — 1—4—, 




3? ^ 


4=fcH4 — 1 








=l=t= 


Ti u k 


i Tinl 






?L4_L_L_ 


[ — u p 




d— 1 

■* ax, 

mm 
















^4^ 






^# 


m 

















o i\ '3 > 


[ARCH . 


2i 








J • 


,i J n 


* e 4 o 




Sh- i f ■f^t-h 


„ a~P", < 

■ — i- — j- — 








F ft 1 1 lli.ita'l 


m mi I e< 


□ J 1 1 i n i .ii . . . 


B I C ) N \ H \ | 




'RAN D 


M A R' 


H 

*Tj»i * i* p » 




• a » II 1 — ■■ — 


9ft ^ a ft -P~ P 




— ^ — — 1 — 1- 

T • o • I^TFfcfe: 


— 1 — h 


T" p ? pt 




1 — 1 1 — » ' — 

>bi * ■ ■a P e a r 






! ffrri 


t-f-^ H - 


J— 

l0 — 


' L3 ' L2rt 




2l==l=3E±=t2 




j > 






j II *« . 

t 


1**1' 


E ■•■ 

* ft — rr T 


— ft — A — 'i — (»- 




h R E £ A 


[ 

IASoVS 

3^ 


r 

March . 


• 





Oi Kr. OF \ORKS MARCH, 

«J . Trio. 

jF J" Fine rtci t • 



.1 

Maf.ie La^-Her, with V'aj initio us for Flute^ivr ^ *j o 1 1 v» 







Ba'fs may b< j co'^ifiiu 

j (Trrrrr 


e d r h r o n ( J 1 1 


i 1 . l_= — | — . — ^ — 

Hie vviivile of the \ .i r « . i ^ 

















Var. i V 




mm 



9 



A Siiiile i'r> .1 the Girl of my die art 



AW'pfr" nff ni^nciio.fffli^ 




The >1 a r f a r i 1 1 r s H v m 



JUJ3^ Jlj.JWifJJJ33 | J,- f J [J, jg ^ 



m 1 




Strang* : 1 ink me not too bo I r 1 . 



fete 



zt 



Anuauuiio 





31 



m 



MAR( H IN Bf.rj^ BEAKD 



For tv o Flutes , n . £ioiins 




m 




g ad ul^g 



i 




vroild 




h march 

Slov 



&ti \ tfr\ttitt!r\rm m 





33 

The YELL( W HAIRED LADDIE. 



Key of F Major. 



iU- ^ i ff r >. :' f" rr 'riail | n i n ri:' ^%P-Hi 



Ni. in this Key, ever \ U must, be played flat. 



Drink to me only. 



Key. of B TIat Maior. 




J Ni. very B . K.& A /is 1 P'iayed Flat. ^ 1^ ™ 



Key of E Major 




^•J ^!J ME : 




imp 



Chanta'n'S i * H > pn cii . 






#1 








AHegr«11 " N i . In ! lis Ki 


Pi ' - 

y every 
1— 


UJ v — 1 


■ . "It 

I be p 























J K rrEP 5X)\S MARCH:? ^rfonii'd jit tueGraiid Fiore^siori in Hnla<ielph ja v 4v'<>f;v. ■ > . .... 



*j For. 

^ 7 ^ jg£ F<rh 

P For: F* * v Mn -.. s*^ 

-fr T'lese iJarg are o'^Ued trie Second time Playing. . 



of 

A Tern po, in ftrict Time . 
Adagio , slow Time. 
/J'/ Libitum, at Pleasure . 
AffeiuOsO, Tenderly . 
Agitate, Agitated • 
Allegro y quick Time. 
Allegretto , not so quick as_ 
Allegro . 

i4l Segno , signifies to be; 



again at the *,#• or Repeat., 
and finish at the double — 
Bur, or the Pause . 
8? 0. an Octa v e higher then. 

written . 

Amoroso, or Tend re me nt , 

nearly as Affetuoso . ^ 
'Andante y rather slowdfcdistir 
AndantinOy slower than An. 
dante . 

Arioso , in the Stile of an Air, 
Arpeggio y or Arpeggiato, re_ 

quires that the "Notes of a 

Chord shall be played sue 

(fisively. 
Assai } to Augment the qui- 

ck net's or slow nefs , as Al. 

legro afsai , very brisk • 

Largo, afsai, very slow. 
Hifs , play those Bars twice 

over which it is placed. 
Bnllanie, in a brilliant Stile, 
F>riQ , Spirit, as con Brio, 

w ith Spirit . 

(\intahile, in a vocal Stile. 

( An ionetUiy a Sort of commo 
Air . 



CapriaOy an Lvtmpoiary^ 
a piece of Music, in wh- 
ich the Author, without 
any Restraint of Music, 
gives Liberty to his Fa- 
ncy, nearly the fame as 
Preludiuna . 
Coda, conclusion or AppeJidlx 
ginjX'on Commodo, with easy. 
Crescendo poy Calando,™ 
"-radual Rise «nn' Fail 
of the Sound . 
Crescendo Rimjbrz-ando , 

or «cr» gradual Rise of 
the Sound . 



an EXPLANATION 
Various .terms useld in music 



Da Capo, signifies to be. Lento, very slow. 



Piece for two Parts, eit- 
her \bcal Instrumental 



Finale, the last Movement Meno , lefs 



G^esto, Just, Exactj as a 
T\?mpo Gicesto, in just 
and exact Time . 
Grutje, very slow Time , 
G ratio so, in a graceful , 

pleasing Stile . 
Gusto, Taste, as con Gusto, 

with Taste . 
Largo , very slow. 
Larghetto > not so slow 

as Largo .. 
Legato, Slur'd, a Stile of 
Playing in opposition 
to Staccato . 
Lenta/nence , rether slow. 



gin. again , and end wi 
th the first part . 
Diminuendo Calando, or 
^ a gradual Fallot the 

Sound . 
Di MoltO , very, as Allegro 
di Molto, very fastjl^a 
rgo di Molto, very Slow 
Dalce, Doll sweetly tenderK March, or Maraa,* Mili, 
Duett, Duetto or Duo, a tary Air; generally pl_ 



Loco, after having playe! 
the Octave above, to 
play the Notes again 
as they are written. 
Maestoso y Majestic, in a 

hold Stile . 
Maneando , decreasing in 
Sound, see l)iminuend<t). 



ayed by ~Wind Instruments, of > the Movement ; and 



Ma, but': 



of a musical Piece . 
Finis, Fine, Fin, denote 
the End of any Move- 
ment or Piece . 
F. or Forte, loud . 
FF. or FortijsimO } very loud 



fter then Piano 
Moderato , Moderate 



Molto, very, see di Molto . 
Minvctty or Minuetto , a 
serious Dance - of a mo—' 
derate Movement in 
Triple Time . 
Perdendc/, see Calando. 
Via no, or P. Soft. 
V. Afsai, or Pianijsimo , 

very soft . 
Fiu , More . 
Foco } lit tie ; ns Poco Piu, 

a little more. 
FomposOy in a. Cirand Stile. 
Fresto y very quick . 
Frestijsimoy more quick 

then Presto. 
Trim Of first . 
Frimo Tempo y according 

to the original Time. 
%uas$a t almost . 
R,rfl*ntando, gradually 

slackening the Time. 
Rondo, Rondeau , a piece 
of Music in which the 
first Part is repeated ona 
or oftener, in the course 



with which it finallyelid 
Seher-iando , in a playful 
M'Sto, in a Melancholy S1 ile. manner. 

Mezzo Forte, orm.J. sof- S&gue, tooontinue or follow 
ter than Forte. Se m pl/ce \ih Simplicity. 

Mezzo Piano , or rn.p,sn- Senza , without . 



Spirit with Spirit. 
SpiriiosOyVito. much Spirit 



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